JOSHUA R SANES
Jeff C. Tarr Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology
Mail: NW 335.30
52 Oxford St
Cambridge, MA 02138
Sanes Lab Website
Members of the Sanes Lab
List of Publications from PubMed
Term: Fall Term 2013-2014. Credit: Half course.
Instructors: David Cox, Jeff Lichtman, Joshua Sanes
Course Level: Primarily for Undergraduates
Description: An introduction to the ways in which the brain controls mental activities. The course covers the cells and signals that process and transmit information, and the ways in which neurons form circuits that change with experience. Topics include the neurobiology of perception, learning, memory, language, emotion, and mental illness.
Note: This course, when taken for a letter grade, meets the General Education requirement for Science of Living Systems or the Core area requirement for Science B. The course is open to students with little formal training in biology.
Meetings: Tu., Th., 10-11:30
Term: Fall Term; Repeated Spring Term 2013-2014. Credit: Half course.
Instructor: Joshua Sanes
Course Level: Graduate Course
Key questions in neuroscience are: how are complex neural circuits assembled in young animals and how do they process information in adults?
The retina may be the first part of the mammalian brain for which satisfactory answers to these questions will be obtained. The retina is about as complex as any other part of the brain, but it has several features that facilitate analysis: it is accessible, compact, and structurally regular, and we already know a lot about what it does.
Visual information is passed from retinal photoreceptors to interneurons to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and then on to the rest of the brain. Each of ~25 types of RGC responds to a visual feature –for example motion in a particular direction– based on which of the ~70 interneuronal types synapse on it. To understand how these circuits form, we mark retinal cell types transgenically, map their connections, seek recognition molecules that mediate their connectivity, use genetic methods to manipulate these molecules, and assess the structural and functional consequences of removing or swapping them.
As a next step, we will ask how the RGCs transfer their information to their main target, the superior colliculus. We believe that our methods and results will be useful in tackling less accessible parts of the brain such as the cerebral cortex.
Kim IJ, Zhang Y, Yamagata M, Meister M, Sanes JR . (2008) Molecular identification of a retinal cell type that responds to upward motion. Nature 452:478-82
Yamagata M, Sanes JR . (2008) Dscam and Sidekick proteins direct lamina-specific synaptic connections in vertebrate retina. Nature 451:465-9
Sanes JR, Zipursky SL. (2010) Design principles of insect and vertebrate visual systems. Neuron 66:15-36
Zipursky SL, Sanes JR. (2010) Chemoaffinity revisited: Dscams, Protocadherins, and neural circuit assembly. Cell 143:343-53
Kay JN, Voinescu PE, Chu MW, and Sanes JR.(2011) Neurod6 expression defines novel retinal amacrine cell subtypes and regulates their fate. Nature Neuroscience 14:965-972
Kay, JN, Chu, MW, Sanes JR. (2012) Megf10 and 11 mediate homotypic interactions required for mosaic spacing of retinal neurons. Nature (2012)483:465-469
Lefebvre, JL, Kostadinov, D, Chen WV, Maniatis, T and Sanes, JR. (2012) Protocadherins Mediate Dendritic Self-Avoidance In The Mammalian Nervous System. Nature 488:517-521